Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio (ESMR)
A wireless communication system in which numerous mobile/portable transceivers are linked in a network of repeaters. Each repeater has a range of approximately 5 to 10 miles. Operating frequencies are in the UHF (ultra-high frequency) range, that is, between approximately 300 MHz and 3 GHz. Usually, the working band is near 900 MHz. ESMR can function like its fundamentally simpler cousin, SMR, but it can also offer features similar to those of a cellular telephone network. The PTT (push-to-talk), half-duplex mode can be used; in this case the operation resembles communications between old-style two-way radios. Full-duplex mode can also be used, so either party can listen and talk at the same time. Interconnection with telephone networks is commonly done. In addition to voice communication, an ESMR system can offer paging, wireless fax, and data transmission. ESMR systems use digital radio transmission. Spread-spectrum modes, such as frequency hopping, are common. In a well-designed ESMR system, connection is almost instantaneous, compared with the typical 15 to 20 seconds required to dial and set up a call in a public cellular network. The coverage of an ESMR system depends on the geographical distribution and needs of the users. Some systems are confined to single municipalities; others cover selected groups of metro areas; others operate over entire states or regions of a country. Examples of ESMR networks include Ericsson's EDACS (Enhanced Digital Access Communications System), Motorola's IDEN (Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network), and the Sprint Nextel System.
Adapted from Whatis.com