A communications service that affords various levels of privacy over public or private infrastructure. Secure VPNs may use cryptographic tunneling protocols to preventing snooping, sender authentication to preventing identity spoofing, and message integrity (preventing message alteration) to achieve the privacy intended. Trusted VPNs do not use cryptographic tunneling. Instead, they rely on the security of a single provider's network to protect the traffic. Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS), layer 2 forwarding, and layer 2 tunneling are commonly used to build trusted VPNs.