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Chapter 9 - Determining Fair and Reasonable Pricing

9.4 Evaluating warranty pricing to determine if price is fair and reasonable

Common warranties include general warranty, express warranty, implied warranty of merchantability, and implied warranty of specifications. Warranty pricing may be greater on warranties other than general or express, which are likely built into the IT product's or service's market price.



General warranty

Is a promise or affirmation given by the supplier regarding the nature, usefulness, or condition of the supplies, solution or performance of services furnished under a contract.

Express warranty

Means the warranty terms as defined in the contract.

Implied warranty of merchantability

Means the implication by sale of the item is that it is reasonably fit for ordinary purposes for which the item is used. Items must be of at least average, fair, or medium-grade quality and must be comparable in quality to those that will pass without objection in the trade or market for items of the same description.

Implied warranty of specifications

Is interpreted as the supplier's specific warranty to the Commonwealth that its design specifications can be successfully used to perform a contract. When a supplier fails to perform because such specifications are defective, it can assert a constructive change claim in order to obtain an equitable adjustment in the contract price. Essentially, by providing the supplier with specifications to be followed in carrying out the contract work, the Commonwealth warrants that if the supplier complies with those specifications, an adequate result will follow.

The principal purpose of warranties in a Commonwealth contract is to delineate the rights and obligations of the supplier to the Commonwealth for defective work or products and to foster quality performance. By agreeing to a warranty, suppliers accept the risk of deferred liability. That acceptance of risk has associated costs and a supplier's unwillingness to accept that risk may drop them from the competition. Other suppliers may increase their prices to compensate for the risk.

Before a warranty provision or requirement is included in a solicitation, the buyer should evaluate the benefits of the warranty against the effect on competition and price. The buyer should understand the relationship between warranty requirements, competition, the nature of the product, and trade practice. Warranty requirements that are unreasonable will reduce competition and increase price. Requirements that significantly exceed trade practice will also reduce competition and increase price. Agencies should identify and eliminate warranty requirements that will increase costs, unless to do so would incur further risk or liability on the IT project or the Commonwealth. In a warranty analysis, the following should be considered:

  • For commercial items, use commercial or standard warranties rather than Commonwealth or agency-unique warranties.
  • For non-commercial items, tailor warranty requirements to mirror existing market or trade practices.
  • When a Commonwealth or agency-unique warranty is required, solicit the warranty as a separately priced line item, which the agency may or may not include in the final contract.
  • If the agency is unsure about the benefits of an extended warranty, solicit offerors for the extended warranty as a separately priced option, especially for out-years.
  • Take advantage of commercial warranties (including extended warranties, where appropriate and in the Commonwealth's best interest) offered by the supplier for the repair and replacement of commercial items.
  • In solicitations for standard IT goods or services, require suppliers to offer the Commonwealth at least the same warranty terms, including offers of extended warranties, as those offered to the general public in customary commercial practice. For example, the supplier may provide warranty services to select high volume customers that are not offered to the general public. If the Commonwealth is not one of those select customers, do not expect to receive extra warranty services without having to pay extra for them.
  • In some markets, customary commercial practices may exclude or limit the implied warranties contained in the Commonwealth's contract terms and conditions. In such cases, the Commonwealth must ensure that the express warranty provides for the repair or replacement of defective items discovered within a reasonable period of time after acceptance.
  • Analyze the proposed warranty period as a price factor. In IT procurements, it is a buyer's best practice to insist that a warranty period begin after final acceptance of the product, service or solution rather than at time of delivery or installation and last for a longer negotiated period; however, a COTS software warranty may have a shorter warranty period (60, 90 days after installation.) Major technology solution contracts may necessitate a year-long warranty period after final acceptance and affect pricing but be worth it.
  • Study the supplier's proposed warranties as price factors to ensure Commonwealth stakeholders and users comply with any restrictions that would void the warranty and negotiate these to the reasonable price benefit of the Commonwealth.