Joint and/or cooperative IT procurement arrangements can provide many benefits including significant savings as volume purchasing lowers pricing, reduces the need for specification development, and provides convenience and flexibility, as well as providing IT contracts with qualified suppliers and proven products. By standardizing IT products and services and aggregating requirements, public bodies can benefit from the combined economies of scale achieved when partnering with multiple government organizations. By joining together and using specialized specification writers, procurement professionals and technical evaluation committee members, governments may be able to produce better contracts for higher quality products and services. Smaller public bodies benefit from the combined resources of larger government agencies and from the market share leveraged by larger government consumers. With one procurement process and one contract serving multiple governments, joint and/or cooperative contracts can reduce administrative costs because the preliminary work has already been done and administrative efforts and costs are spread across multiple governments.