10.18 Freight

Freight and delivery charges shall be included in the pricing schedule, if needed, in all bids and proposals. When necessary, freight and delivery charges are used in the evaluation and award and should be clearly reflected on all documentation in the procurement file. By signing an IFB, suppliers certify that the bid prices offered for F.O.B destination include only the actual freight rate costs at the lowest available rate and such charges are based upon the actual weight of the goods to be shipped.

  • F.O.B. destination. - F.O.B. destination literally means "free on board." It is the place at which ownership (title) of the goods passes to the buyer and usually, but not always, the point at which the buyer is responsible for the shipping costs. F.O.B. destination means that all freight charges are paid by the supplier who owns and assumes all risk for the goods until they are accepted by the Commonwealth at the designated delivery point. Unless there is a specific finding that F.O.B. destination is not appropriate for a particular IT procurement, F.O.B. destination is the Commonwealth's preferred method of freight. The cost of shipping the goods may be included in the quoted price or by the bidder or offeror as a separate line item.
  • F.O.B. origin - Under F.O.B. origin, the supplier is required to select the most economical method of shipment consistent with the required delivery date. The supplier will prepay the freight charge and add it to the invoice. Regardless of the F.O.B. point, the Commonwealth accepts title only when goods are received. Under F.O.B. origin, the total cost for freight to destination, shipping and handling charges shall be included in determining the lowest responsive and responsible bidder. The cost of the freight, shipping and/or handling should be reflected as a line item on the purchase order.

In the table below, the first entry (F.O.B. destination) is the most beneficial to the Commonwealth, while the others increase the expense and risk to the state. Remember that when ownership passes to the agency at the point of origin, the agency owns the merchandise in transit. The agency would then be obligated to pay for lost or damaged shipments. There may be times when accepting a lower bid requires an agency to pay the shipping costs and accept the risk of loss for merchandise in transit. The following table summarizes commonly used shipping terms and their implications. When you see the term "Freight Allowed", it means the seller pays the freight bill and absorbs the costs.

Terms of sale

Payment of initial freight charge

Bears final freight cost

Owns goods in transit

File claims, if any

F.O.B. destination, freight prepaid (allowed)

Seller

Seller

Seller

Seller

F.O.B. destination, freight collect

 

Buyer

Seller

Seller

F.O.B. destination, freight prepaid and added (charged back to buyer on invoice)

Seller

Buyer

Seller

Seller

F.O.B. shipping point, freight prepaid

Seller

Seller

Buyer

Buyer

F.O.B. shipping point, freight collect

 

Buyer

Buyer

Buyer

F.O.B. shipping point, freight prepaid and added (charged back to buyer on invoice)

Seller

Buyer

Buyer

Buyer